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Neural Information ProcessingLearning Vector Quantization and Self-organizing Maps

Neuronale Informationsverarbeitung

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Learning Vector Quantization and Self-organizing Maps

Self-organizing maps, often termed Kohonen maps, are a versatile and widely used tool for exploratory data analysis. Here we were interested in mathematically characterizing the embedding properties of the Self-organizing Map. We proposed robust learning schemes using deterministic annealing and we investigated extensions of the Self-organizing Map to relational data representations which included pairwise data as a special case. Emphasis was given to formulations which are based on cost-functions and optimization, and we investigated, how the different variants of the Self-organizing map relate to each other and to the original Kohonen map. We also studied prototype-based classifiers related to Learning Vector Quantization with a particular focus on improved learning schemes. Self-organizing maps were also investigated in the context of understanding self-organization and pattern formation in neural development. For details see "Research" page "Models of Neural Development".

Acknowledgement: Research was funded by the Technische Universität Berlin.

Lupe

Selected Publications:

Self-Organizing Maps: Generalizations and New Optimization Techniques
Citation key Graepel1998b
Author Graepel, T. and Burger, M. and Obermayer, K.
Pages 173 – 190
Year 1998
DOI 10.1.1.27.298
Journal Neurocomputing
Volume 20
Abstract We offer three algorithms for the generation of topographic mappings to the practitioner of unsupervised data analysis. The algorithms are each based on the minimization of a cost function which is performed using an EM algorithm and deterministic annealing. The soft topographic vector quantization algorithm (STVQ) – like the original Self-Organizing Map (SOM) – provides a tool for the creation of self-organizing maps of Euclidean data. Its optimization scheme, however, offers an alternative to the heuristic stepwise shrinking of the neighborhood width in the SOM and makes it possible to use a fixed neighborhood function solely to encode desired neighborhood relations between nodes. The kernel-based soft topographic mapping (STMK) is a generalization of STVQ and introduces new distance measures in data space based on kernel functions. Using the new distance measures corresponds to performing the STVQ in a high-dimensional feature space, which is related to data space by a nonlinear mapping. This preprocessing can reveal structure of the data which may go unnoticed if the STVQ is performed in the standard Euclidean space. The soft topographic mapping for proximity data (STMP) is another generalization of STVQ that enables the user to generate topographic maps for data which are given in terms of pairwise proximities. It thus offers a flexible alternative to multidimensional scaling methods and opens up a new range of applications for Self-Organizing Maps. Both STMK and STMP share the robust optimization properties of STVQ due to the application of deterministic annealing. In our contribution we discuss the algorithms together with their implementation and provide detailed pseudo-code and explanations.
Bibtex Type of Publication Selected:quantization
Link to publication Link to original publication Download Bibtex entry

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